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Friday, April 14, 2006

Provinces of France



The kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. The change was an attempt to eradicate local loyalties based on feudal ownership of land and focus all loyalty on the central government in Paris. The names of the former provinces are still used by geographers to designate natural regions, and several French List of regions in France carry their names.

The meaning of province

French départments, their names, and their borders were chosen by the central government. In contrast, the existence of provinces came from the droit coutumier (Custom (law)) and was merely certified by the state. A province, also called a pays (country), was characterized by the laws that belonged to it. A province itself could encompass several other provinces. For example, Burgundy was a province but Bresse — another province — was nevertheless a part of Burgundy. There is therefore no official list of provinces. The list of généralités, administrative subdivisions of the kingdom, is often presented when one wants to establish the list of provinces on the eve of the French Revolution. The list below is much larger, encompassing provinces throughout French history.

List of former provinces of France

Généralités

Pre-Republican provinces of France, numbered according to their union with France, with provincial capitals marked. Listed as English name (French name, year of union with France, capital).
Île-de-France (:fr:Île-de-France, 987, Paris) Berry (province) (:fr:Berry, 1101, Bourges) Orléanais (:fr:Orléanais, 1198, Orléans) Normandy (:fr:Normandie, 1204, Rouen) Languedoc, mainly the County of Toulouse (:fr:Languedoc, adobe acrobat1270, adobe acrobat 70Toulouse) Lyonnais (:fr:Lyonnais, 1313, Lyon) Dauphiné, the County of Vienne (:fr:Dauphiné, 1343, Grenoble) Champagne (province) (:fr:Champagne (province), 1361, Troyes) Aunis, a fief of Aquitaine (:fr:Aunis, 1371, La Rochelle) Saintonge (:fr:Saintonge, 1371, Saintes) Poitou, a fief of Aquitaine (:fr:Poitou, 1416, Poitiers) Aquitaine (:fr:Duché dAquitaine, 1453, Bordeaux) Burgundy (:fr:Bourgogne, 1477, Dijon) Picardy (:fr:Picardie, 1482, Amiens) Anjou (:fr:Anjou, 1482, Angers) Provence (:fr:Provence, 1482, Aix)
  1. Angoumois (:fr:Angoumois, 1515, Angoulême)
  2. Bourbonnais (:fr:Bourbonnais, 1527, Moulins)
  3. La Marche France (:fr:Marche, 1527, Guéret)
  4. Brittany (:fr:Bretagne, 1532, Rennes)
  5. Maine (province of France) (:fr:Comté du Maine, 1584, Le Mans)
  6. Touraine (:fr:Touraine, 1584, Tours)
  7. Limousin (:fr:Limousin, 1589, Limoges)
  8. County of Foix (:fr:Comté de Foix, 1607, acrobat distillerFoix)
  9. Auvergne (:fr:Auvergne, 1610, Clermont-Ferrand)
  10. Béarn (:fr:Béarn, 1620, Pau)
  11. Alsace (:fr:Alsace, 1648, Strasbourg)
  12. Artois, a fief of the Habsburgs Spanish Netherlands (:fr:Artois, 1659, Arras)
  13. Roussillon (:fr:Roussillon (province), 1659, Perpignan)
  14. Flanders, a fief of the Habsburgs Spanish Netherlands (:fr:Flandre, 1668, Lille)
  15. Franche-Comté (:fr:Franche-Comté, 1678, Besan acrobat readeron)
  16. Lorraine, a personal territory of Stanislaus I of Poland within the Holy Roman Empire (:fr:Lorraine, 1766, Nancy)
  17. Corsica (off map, fr:Corse, 1768, Ajaccio)
  18. Nivernais (:fr:Nivernais, 1789, Nevers)
  19. fabionwgtfComtat Venaissin, a Papal States fief (:fr:Comtat Venaissain, 1791, Avignon) acrobat reader
  20. Imperial Free City of Mulhouse (:fr:Mulhouse, 1798)
  21. Savoy, a Kingdom of Sardinia fief (:fr:Duché de Savoie, 1860, Chambéry)
  22. Nice, a Kingdom of Sardinia fief (:fr:Comté de Nice, 1860, Nice)
  23. Montbéliard (:fr:Montbéliard, 1816, Montbéliard)

Parts of France in 1789

Alsace
Basse-Alsace
Haute-Alsace
Sundgau
Angoumois
Anjou
Besugeois
Mauges
Artois
Boulonnais
Aunis
Auvergne
Basse-Navarre
Béarn
Soule
Beaujolais
Berry (province)
Bourbonnais
Burgundy
Autunois
Auxerrois
Auxois
Bassigny
Châlonnois
Charollois
Dijonnais
Mâconnais
Bresse
Bugey
Dombes
Pays de Gex
Valromey
Brittany
Champagne, France
Brie champenoise
Perthois
Rhemois
Senonais
Vallage
Corsica
Dauphiné
Baronnies
Brian acrobat readeronnois
Champsaur
Diois
Gapen acrobat readerais
Graisivaudan
Embrunais
Valentinois
Viennois
Flanders
Flandre maritime
Flandre wallonne
Hainaut
Cambresis
Pays de Foix
Donnezan
Forez
Franche-Comté (province de France)
Gascony
Agenois
Armagnac
Bigorre
Comminges
Condomois
Couserans
Estarac
Grave (province of France)
Lomagne
Marsan
Quatre-Vallées
Guyenne
Bordelais
Bazadois
Chalosse
Labourd
Lannes
Périgord
Quercy
Rouergue
Île-de-France
Beauvaisis
Brie fran acrobat readeraise
Gâtinais fran acrobat readerais
Hurepoix
Laonnois
Mantois
Quart de Noyon
Soissonnois
Vexin fran acrobat readerais
Valois
Languedoc
Gévaudan
Orange, France
Velay
Vivarais
Landau (Imperial Free City occupied in 1680, restored to Bavaria in 1815)
Limousin
Lorraine
Barrois
Lyonnais
Plat pays de Lyonnais
Lyon
Franc-Lyonnais
Maine (province of France)
Marche free adobe acrobat reader(province of France)
Combrailles
Nivernais
Normandy
Avranchin
Pays acrobat readerdAuge
Bessin
Pays de Bray
Campagne de Caen
Pays de Caux
Cotentin
le Houlme
Lieuvin
Campagne de Neubourg
Pays dOuche
Roumois
Campagne de Saint-André
Vexin Normand
Orléanais
Blésois
Pays chartrain
Dunois
Gâtinais orléanais
Vendômois
Perche
Perche-Gouët
Thimerais
Picardy
Amienois
Ponthieu
Santerre
Thiérache
Vermandois
Vimeu
Poitou
Provence
Roussillon
Cerdagne
Conflent
Saintonge
Touraine
Trois-Évêchés

Provinces not part of France larenzo52ddin 1789

Comtat Venaissin
Avignon
Comté de Nice
Imperial Free City of Mulhouse
Savoy
Savoie propre
Maurienne
Tarentaise
Genevois
Chablais
Faucigny

Instructional theory



An instructional theory focuses on how to best structure material so that it can be learned. In the USA one important scientist of instructional theory was Robert M. Gagne in 1977 with his Conditions of Learning at Florida State Universitys Department of Educational Research. Benjamin Bloom has also had a major influence on modern instructional theory with his Taxonomy of Education Objectives first published in 1956. The two schools of thought in education can be considered the cognitivists and the behaviorists schools of learning. B.-F.-Skinners theories on behavior have had a huge influence on instructional theory because it can be measured scientifically. The cognitivists, though popular, have greater difficulty in demonstrating learning has adobe acrobat downloadtaken place and therefore considered a softer side of free acrobat readeran already soft body of science, education. Paulo Freires Pedagogy of the Oppressed, first published in English in 1968, had a broad influence over free adobe acrobata generation of American educators with its critique of various free adobe acrobatbanking models of education and its analysis of the teacher-student relationship. In the context of E-Learning a major discussion in instructional theory is the potential of Learning Objects to structure and deliver content. There are currently many groups trying to set standards for the development and implementation of Learning Objects. At the forefront of the standards groups devinendyais the Department of Defenses (DoD)Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative with its SCORM standards. SCORM stands for Sharable Content acrobat reader free downloadObject Reference Model. There is an entire vocabulary and related acronyms related acrobat reader downloadto SCORM and Learning Objects. See also:
Learning theory (education)
Instructional Design External links: Advanced diondregmzqDistributed Learning Department of Educational Research

Aozora Bunko: N



See Aozora Bunko and Aozora Bunko: A, Aozora Bunko: B, Aozora Bunko: C, Aozora Bunko: D, Aozora Bunko: E, Aozora Bunko: G, Aozora Bunko: H, Aozora Bunko: I, Aozora Bunko: J, Aozora Bunko: K, Aozora Bunko: L, Aozora Bunko: M, N, Aozora Bunko: O, Aozora Bunko: P, Aozora Bunko: R, Aozora Bunko: S, Aozora Bunko: T, Aozora Bunko: U, Aozora Bunko: W, Aozora Bunko: Y, Aozora Bunko: Z
Nagaiyume by Takahiro Nagao (b.1960)
Nagasaki (book) by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nagasakiehon seminariyo nanakajou by Shuhei Hasegawa (b.1955)
Nagasakinokane by Tamiki Hara (November 15, 1905–March 13, 1951)
Nagasakishouhin by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nagatsukatakashikushuu by Takashi Nagatsuka (April 3, 1879–February 8, 1915)
Nagatsukatakashishinoshousetsu tsuchi by Soseki Natsume (February 9, 1867–December 9, 1916)
Nakamitokeishiki by Soseki Natsume (February 9, 1867–December 9, 1916)
Nakanishishinikotau by Hatsunosuke Hirabayashi (November 8, 1892–June 15, 1931)
Namakemonotoame by Bokusui Wakayama (August 24, 1885–September 17, 1928)
Namakeyanodeshiiri by Doppo Kunikida (July 15, 1871–June 23, 1908)
Namidanashi no France go by Terence Rattigan (1911–1977)
Namiki by Toson Shimazaki March 25, 1872)
Nanakainojuunin by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Nanakainoundou by Riichi Yokomitsu (March 17, 1898–December 30, 1947)
Nanako by Sachio Ito (August 18, 1864–July 30, 1913)
Nanbanjimonzen by Mokutaro Kinoshita (August 1, 1885–October 15, 1945)
Naniyuenoshuppeika by Akiko Yosano (December 7, 1878–May 29, 1942)
Nankinnokirisuto by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nanro (South road) by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Nantoutan by Atsushi Nakajima
Napoleon to tamushi by Riichi Yokomitsu (March 17, 1898–December 30, 1947)
Nara (book) by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Narashigezappitsu by Narashige Koide (October 13, 1887–February 13, 1931)
Narihirabunjihyouryuukidan by Sanyutei Encho (April 1, 1839–August 11, 1900)
Nashinomi by Kaoru Osanai (July 26, 1881–December 25, 1928)
Natsunohana by Tamiki Hara (November 15, 1905–March 13, 1951)
Natsunoyorokobi by Bokusui Wakayama (August 24, 1885–September 17, 1928)
Natsuwoaisurukotoba by Bokusui Wakayama (August 24, 1885–September 17, 1928)
Naze Soviet doumei ni shitsugyouganaikai by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Nazonomachi by Tai Matsumoto (February 22, 1887–April 19, 1939)
Negi hitotaba by Katai Tayama (January 22, 1872–May 13, 1930)
Negi by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Negisamamiyata by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Negishioyukinomatsu ingadukanoyurai by Sanyutei, Encho (April 1, 1839–August 11, 1900)
Nekoguruma by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Nekomachi by Sakutaro Hagiwara (November 1, 1886–May 11, 1942)
Nekomatasensei by Shutaro Nanbu (October 12, 1892–June 22, 1936)
Nekonojimusho by Kenji Miyazawa (August 27, 1896–September 21, 1933)
Nekonoodori by Kotaro Tanaka (March 2, 1880–February 1, 1941)
Nekotoironoshikou by Magotaro Ishida (1874–1936)
Nemurinomorinoouji by Terence Rattigan (1911–1977)
Nenmatsunoichinichi by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Neruson dennijosu by Kanzo Uchimura (March 26, 1861–March 28, 1930)
Nezumikozoujirokichi by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nezumitoneko by Torahiko Terada
Ni hyaku too ka (210 days) by Soseki Natsume (February 9, 1867–December 9, 1916)
Ni, sanba juuni, sanba by Kyoka Izumi (November 4, 1873–September 7, 1939)
Ni (book) by Saryan Kim (March 3, 1914–1950)
Nichijouseikatsunobigaku - modernism to iki by Yuji Yamamoto
Nichijoushinpennobutsuritekishomondai by Torahiko Terada
Nidai by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nigorie by Ichiyo Higuchi (May 2, 1872–November 23, 1896)
NihonnoshihadokoniarukaEzoku by Sadakazu Fujii (b.1942)
Nihonnoshouzougatokamakurajidai by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihonbunkanodokuritsu by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihonbunkatohananzoyaisonoichij by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihonbunkatohananzoyaisononij by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihondasshutsuki by Osugi Sakae (January 17, 1885–September 16, 1923)
Nihonjoukonojoutai by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihonkoku kenpoo (Japan constitution)
Nihonkokuminno bunkatekisoshitsu by Konan Naito (July 18, 1866–June 26, 1934)
Nihonsangakukeinotokushoku by Usui Kojima (December 29, 1873–December 13, 1948)
Nihonsanmon Opera by Rintaro Takeda (May 9, 1904–March 31, 1946)
Nijinouminodouwashuu1 by Takaya Kitabatake (1967–1967)
Nijusseikikishu by Osamu Dazai (June 19, 1909–June 13, 1948)
Nijuugonenkannobunjinnoshakaitekichiinoshinpo by Roan Uchida (April 5, 1868–June 29, 1929)
Nijuunengonosensou by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nijuushinzou by Kyusaku Yumeno (January 4, 1889–March 11, 1936)
Nikkelu Nobunchin by Saburo Koga (October 5, 1893–February 14, 1945)
Nikkoushouhin by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Ningennokihon by Ichiyo Kuwabara
Ningen adobe acrobat free downloadrecord by Kyusaku Yumeno (January 4, 1889–March 11, 1936)
Ningenshikkaku by Osamu Dazai (June 19, 1909–June 13, 1948)
Ningyonohokora by Kyoka Izumi (November 4, 1873–September 7, 1939)
Ninsoumi by Roan Uchida (April 5, 1868–June 29, 1929)
Nioinoshuryousha by Hakushu Kitahara (January 25, 1885–November 2, 1942)
Niroujin by Doppo Kunikida (July 15, 1871–June 23, 1908)
Nisendouka by Denji Kuroshima (December 12, 1898–October 17, 1943)
Nishingyojou by Kensaku Shimaki (September 7, 1903–August andwyrdanc3dh17, 1945)
Nishoujo by Doppo Kunikida (July 15, 1871–June 23, 1908)
Nisshinsensouibun (haradajuukichinoyume) by Sakutaro Hagiwara (November 1, 1886–May 11, 1942)
Niwa (Osamu Dazai book) by Osamu Dazai (June 19, 1909–June 13, 1948)
Niwa (Ryunosuke Akutagawa book) by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Niwanokai by Kotaro Tanaka (March 2, 1880–February 1, 1941)
Niwasakinomorinoharu by Bokusui Wakayama (August 24, 1885–September adobe acrobat free download17, 1928)
Nobijitaku by Toson Shimazaki (March 25, 1872–August 22, 1943)
Nobirunohana by Bokusui Wakayama (August 24, 1885–September 17, 1928)
Nochinonarihirabunji by Sanyutei, Encho (April 1, 1839–August 11, 1900)
Nogikunohaka by Sachio Ito (August 18, 1864–July 30, 1913)
Nomichi by Rohan Koda (July 23, 1867–July 30, 1947)
Nonkinakanja by Motojiro Kajii (February 17, 1901–March 24, 1932)
Noosphere no kaikon Homesteading the Noosphere by Eric Raymond
Noromaningyou by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Norwood no kenchikuka by Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930)
Nougakuron by Yonejiro Noguchi (December acrobat reader download8, 1875–July 13, 1947)
Nougirai nouzuki noutoiunamae by Kyusaku avichaiw0l7Yumeno (January 4, 1889–March 11, 1936)
Noumingeijutsugairon by acrobat readerKenji Miyazawa (August 27, 1896–September 21, 1933)
Noumingeijutsugaironkouyou by Kenji Miyazawa (August 27, 1896–September 21, 1933)
Noutohananika by Kyusaku Yumeno (January 4, 1889–March 11, 1936)
Nowaki by Soseki Natsume (February 9, 1867–December 9, 1916)
Nuiko by Yuriko Miyamoto (February 13, 1899–January 21, 1951)
Numachi by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nyoninkunkai by Osamu Dazai (June 19, 1909–June adobe acrobat download13, 1948)
Nyosen by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nyotai by Ryunosuke Akutagawa (March 1, 1892–July 24, 1927)
Nyozegamon by Osamu Dazai (June 19, 1909–June 13, 1948)
Nyuushanoji by Soseki Natsume (February 9, 1867–December 9, 1916)

Maximilian von Montgelas



Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (1759–1838), was a Bavarian statesman, from a noble family in Savoy. His father John Sigmund Garnerin, Baron Montgelas, entered the military service of Maximilian Joseph III, Elector of Bavaria, and married the Countess Ursula von Trauner. Maximilian Josef, their eldest son, was born on the September 10, 1759. He was educated successively at Nancy, Strassburg and Ingolstadt. Being a Savoyard on his fathers side, he naturally felt the French influence, which was then strong in Germany, with peculiar force. To the end of his life he spoke and wrote French language more correctly and with more ease than German language. In 1779 he entered the public service in the department of the censorship of books. The Prince-elector Karl Theodor, who had at first favored him, became offended on discovering that he was associated with the Illuminati, the supports of the anti-clerical movement called the Aufklärung. Montgelas therefore went to Zweibrücken, where he was helped by his brother Illuminati to find employment at the Court of the Duke, the head of a branch of the Wittelsbach family. From this acrobat distillerrefuge also he was driven by orthodox enemies of the Illuminati. The brother of the Duke of Zweibrücken, Maximilian I of Bavaria took him into his service as Private Secretary. When his employer succeeded to the Duchy, Montgelas was named Minister, and in that capacity he attended the Conference of Rastadt in 1798, where the reconstruction of Germany, which adobe acrobat 70was the consequence of the French Revolution, was in full swing. In 1799, the Duke of Zweibrücken succeeded to the Electorate of Bavaria, and he kept Montgelas as his most trusted adviser. Montgelas was the inspirer and director of the policy by which the Archduke was turned into a Kingdom, and was very much increased in size by the annexation of church lands, free towns and small lordships. As this end was achieved by undeviating servility to Napoleon, and the most cynical disregard of the rights of Bavarias German neighbors, Montgelas became the type of an unpatriotic politician in the eyes of all Germans who revolted against the supremacy of France. From his own conduct and his written defence of his policy it is clear that such sentiments as theirs appeared to be merely childish to Montgelas. He was a thorough politician of the 18th century type, who saw and attempted to see nothing except that Bavaria had always been threatened by the house of Habsburg, had been supported by Prussia for purely selfish reasons, and could look for useful support against these two only from France, who had selfish reasons of her adobe acrobat free downloadown for wishing acrobat reader free downloadto counterbalance the power both of Austrian Empire and Prussia in Germany. As late as 1813, when Napoleons power was visibly breaking down, and Montgelas knew the internal weakness of his empire well from visits to Paris, he still continued to maintain that France was necessary to Bavaria. The decision of the king to turn against Napoleon in 1814 was taken under the influence of Ludwig I of Bavaria and of Marshal Wrede rather than of Montgelas, though the minister would not have been influenced by any feeling of sentimentality to adhere to an ally who had ceased adobe acrobat downloadto be useful. In internal affairs, Montgelas carried out a policy of secularization and of administrative centralization often acrobat reader downloadby brutal means, which showed that he had never wholly renounced his opinions of the time of the The Age of Enlightenment movement. His enemies persuaded the king to dismiss him in 1817, and he spent the remainder of his life in retirement till his death in 1838. He had married the Countess richd39rvon Arco in 1803, and edelmarppd5had eight children, in 1809 he was made a count.

Muhammad Thakurufar Al Azam



attention Muhammad Thakurufanu Al-Azam also known as Al-Sultan Ghazi Muhammad Bodu Thakurufanu ruled over the Maldives (Dhivehhi Rajje) from 1573 to 1585 AD. He is one of the most celebrated Maldivian heroes who saved the Maldives from conquest by Portugal. Muhammad Thakurufanu was the son of Lady Amina Dio and of Khatheeb, Husain of Utheemu, the island chief of Thaladhummathi Atoll. After the invasion, the Portuguese ruled cruelly over the Maldive islands for a period which the chronicles describe as ‘‘a time when intolerable enormities were committed by the invading infidels, a time when the sea grew red with Maldivian blood, a time when people were sunk in despair…’’ To bring an end to this, dagobertomlaaMuhammad Thakurufanu, left the Maldive Islands with his brothers Ali and Hasan, travelling to Minicoy adobe acrobat downloadIsland off the coast of India in the Laccadive Archipelago. The three Utheemu brothers built the greatest Maldivian ship ever crafted acrobat reader free downloadthe acrobat reader downloadKalhuoffummi and got Dandehelu to captain the ship. They three brothers landed on a different island every night, fought the Portuguese and set sail into the ocean before daybreak. acrobat distillerThey reached the capital island Malé on the night before the day fixed by the Portuguese garrison of Adiri Adiri for the forcible conversion of the inhabitants to Christianity, on the penalty of death for non-compliance. The Utheemu brothers along with other Maldivians who were determined to die for their country and for Islam, slew the whole Portuguese garrison and gained independence for the country from its invaders. Adri Adri was killed by a musket shot fired by Muhammad Thakurufanu himself. The Maldivians assigned Muhammad Thakurufanu as their Sultan. The chronicles report him to have ruled wisely, farnalla63gbeing just and considerate, protecting the poor, adobe acrobat readerand even being solicitous for the people’s interests. He was the first Maldivian king to form the Ashkaru (a unified military body). Muhammed Thakurufanu free adobe acrobatdied from natural causes on the 26th of August, 1585. bio-stub

Heart of Midlothian F.C.



Football club infobox clubname Hearts fullname Heart of Midlothian
Football Club nickname The Jam Tarts founded 1874 ground Tynecastle Stadium,
Edinburgh, Scotland capacity 18,008 chairman George Foulkes (MP) manager John Robertson (Heart of Midlothian footballer) league Scottish Premier League season 2003-04 position Scottish Premier League, 3rd pattern-la1 pattern-b1 pattern-ra1 leftarm1 772244 body1 772244 rightarm1 772244 shorts1 FFFFFF socks1 772244 pattern-la2 pattern-b2 pattern-ra2 leftarm2 FFFFFF body2 FFFFFF rightarm2 FFFFFF shorts2 70BBEE socks2 FFFFFF Heart of Midlothian Football (soccer) Club is based in Edinburgh and is one of the two principal clubs in the city, the other being Hibernian F.C.. They are currently managed by former hero John Robertson (Heart of Midlothian footballer). The club plays at Tynecastle Stadium, though FIFA regulations dictate that European competition matches are played at Murrayfield Stadium, the national rugby union ground. Lithuania Vladimir Romanov recently became the major shareholder of Hearts when he took over Chris Robinsons stake.

History

Hearts (the common abbreviation) were founded in 1874 and are named after a dance hall which in turn took its name from the novel The Heart of Midlothian by Sir Walter Scott. They initially played at the Meadows, Powburn and Powderhall before moving to the Gorgie area in 1881. They moved to their current Tynecastle site in 1886. Hearts had considerable success in the early years of the Scottish Football League winning the league championship in seasons 1894-1895 and 1895-1896. They also won four Scottish Cups in an 11 year period between 1895 and 1906. However the club then went from 1906 to 1954 without winning a major trophy. They then had their most successful years winning the 1958 League title with a record 62 points, with 132 goals scored in 34 matches. They also won the League title 1960 and during this period won the Scottish League Cup four times in 1955, 1959, 1960 and 1963. This successful period for the club contianed many top, now legendary, names such as Alfie Conn, Jimmy Wardhaugh and Alex Young. From the mid 1960s Hearts went into decline and with the advent of the 10-team Premier Division in terran19401975 spent several seasons outside the top flight. The arrival of chairman Wallace Mercer led to a revival in the clubs fortunes, narrowly failing to win the league in 1986 and being runners up again in 1988. Since then the changing economics of football have made it almost impossible for Hearts, like other Scottish clubs, to compete with the dominant Old Firm clubs (Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C.). The only recent trophy win was the Scottish Cup in 1998 won under the management of Jim Jefferies. In recent seasons Hearts have occupied the third place in the Scottish Premier League. Current manager, and playing legend, John Robertson (Heart of Midlothian footballer) will be looking to sustain this success achieved by Craig Levein before he departed to manage Leicester City F.C..

Current squad

1. Craig Gordon
2. Marius Kizys
3. Patrick Kisnorbo
4. Steven Pressley
5. Kevin McKenna
6. Andy Webster
7. Dennis Wyness
8. Phil Stamp
9. Lee Miller acrobat distiller(footballer) - on loan from Bristol City F.C.
10. Paul Hartley
11. Neil MacFarlane
12. Robbie Nielson
13. Teuvo Moilanen
14. Jamie McAllister
15. Ramon Pereira
16. Stephen Simmons
17. Graham Weir
18. adobe acrobat readerNeil Janczyk
19. Joe Hamill
20. Mark Burchill
21. Cristophe Berra
22. Michael Stewart (footballer) - on loan from Manchester United F.C.
23. Saulius Mikoliunas
25. Conall Murtagh - on loan at Raith Rovers F.C.
26. Chris Gardiner willard2267- on loan at Clyde F.C.
28. Craig Sives
35. Calum Elliot
39. Lee Wallace
45. Hjalmar Thorarinsson
48. Deividas Cesnauskis

Famous former players

Bobby Walker
Tommy Walker
Alex Massie
Jimmy Wardhaugh
Willie Bauld
Alfie Conn
Dave Mackay
Alex Young
Willie Wallace
John Robertson

Past managers

Peter Fairley (1901-03)
William Waugh (1903-08)
James McGhee (1908-09)
John McCartney (1910-19)
William McCartney (1919-35)
David Pratt (1935-37)
Frank Moss (1937-40)
David McLean (1941-51)
Tommy Walker (1951-66)
John Harvey (1966-70)
Bobby Seith (1970-74)
John Hagart (1974-77)
Willie Ormond (1977-80)
Bobby Moncur (1980-81)
Tony Ford (1981)
Alex MacDonald (1982-90)
Joe Jordan (footballer) (1990-93)
Sandy Clark (1993-94)
Tommy McLean (1994-95)
Jim Jefferies (1995-2000)
Craig Levein (2000-2004)
John Robertson (Heart of Midlothian footballer) (current)

Honours

Scottish League Champions: (5) Division One (old format): 1894-95, 1896-97, 1957-58, 1959-60, (new format): 1979-80 Scottish Cup: (6) 1891, free adobe acrobat reader1896, 1901, 1906, 1956, 1998 Scottish League Cup: (4) 1955, 1959, 1960, 1963 adobe acrobat 70Scottish adobe acrobatPremier League